A critical overview of targeted therapies for glioblastoma is an evidence-based practice guideline for managing glioblastoma. While cytotoxic therapies have long been used to treat this malignancy, recent attempts have focused on targeting tumor growth and progression pathways. These treatments range from anti-angiogenic agents to immunotherapies that harness the patient's immune system.
EGFR Amplified Glioblastoma
Glioblastoma is the most common primary brain tumor in adults, and treatment consists of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. The main reasons for recurrence are unknown, but recent advances highlighted the EGFR gene in glioblastoma. Patients with amplification of the EGFR gene are more likely to have recurrence after treatment.
In a recent study, a PET-imaging test was developed for EGFR-amplified glioblastoma. It detected a tumor with a high ratio of EGFR to centromere 7. The tumor also carried the EGFR G598V mutation.
Current treatment for glioblastoma involves the use of radiotherapy. It is generally combined with chemotherapy. However, this combination has not been shown to improve patient survival. In addition, radiotherapy is also associated with a significant risk of exposing normal brain tissue to radiation, which can impair cognitive function. Therefore, the modern practice has shifted to "focal" radiation therapy, which involves covering two to three centimeters of the tumor. This treatment is also known as interstitial brachytherapy and fractionated radiotherapy. When you contact resources like the Glioblastoma Foundation, you can learn more about therapies.
Targeted therapy has several advantages over chemotherapy and surgery. The size and location of tumors determine the effectiveness of these therapies. These therapies make tumors less likely to spread to surrounding areas of the body. This makes targeted therapies safer and more effective.
Targeted therapies to treat glioblastoma have received renewed attention in recent years. The recognition of EGFR resistance and molecular variations in glioblastoma has prompted renewed efforts to find an effective molecular therapy to treat this aggressive and progressive cancer.
Targeted therapies to target GAMs have great potential to provide relief for patients with glioblastoma. The targeted delivery of chemotherapy to GAMs is possible using monoclonal antibodies. Another promising approach is the introduction of genetically modified bacteria into tumor remnants after resection. In addition, more precise animal models can be used for preclinical testing. Furthermore, personalized/precision medicine approaches can be used in clinical trials and neurosurgical practice.
DC vaccines can activate T cells that attack cancer cells through several steps. DCS is the most prominent antigen-presenting cell in the body and is essential for sustained T-cell responses. They can be used as an alternative to ICBs, and involve the transfer of immune cells. These immunotherapies have shown promising results in preclinical trials in selected patient groups. However, the primary endpoint in these studies was not achieved. In addition, the use of DC vaccines in combination with ICBs has not been found to improve overall survival time.
According to those like the Glioblastoma Foundation professionals, targeted therapies have shown great promise in treating patients with high-grade gliomas. These cancers, which include glioblastoma and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma in children, are often deadly. Only about 5% of patients survive five years after diagnosis. However, targeted agents have shown promise as monotherapy and sensitizing strategies that can improve responses to traditional chemo-radiation. Although the FDA has approved no targeted agents, they have been the subject of intense study.
Glioblastoma is one of the most common malignant tumors of the brain. It accounts for about 57% of all gliomas and 48% of all primary malignant tumors of the central nervous system. Although multimodality therapy has made considerable progress in treating this cancer, there is still a need to develop novel therapeutic approaches to improve patient survival and quality of life.
Intensity-modulated radiation therapy.
This study evaluated the effects of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) on tumor volume and dose distribution. Eleven patients with gliomas underwent treatment with IMRT. Repeated MRI, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging evaluated the tumors. After treatment, the patients underwent adjuvant chemotherapy.
Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has been proposed as an alternative to chemotherapy in treating glioblastoma. It reduces the amount of radiation delivered to normal tissues around the tumor. The standard treatment for glioblastoma combines surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.
Proton beams have a steeper dose gradient than photons, allowing for much higher concentrations in the tumor. Moreover, they cause significantly less dose exposure outside of the irradiated volume, resulting in a more effective treatment for high-grade gliomas. In addition, proton beams have been shown to reduce toxicity during therapy.